Mark Twain’s notes for The Prince and the Pauper provide a remarkably varied record of the author at work. They comprise extensive notes on English history and long lists of words and idioms which Mark Twain copied from his reading, interspersed with some of his earliest ideas for the book. Later notes, obviously made during the course of composition, show the author jotting down new ideas and refining what he had already written. All of these notes, along with a discarded page from an early version of the book, have been presented here as faithfully as the rendering of handwriting into type permits.

The notes have been grouped on the basis of physical characteristics, comparison with the manuscript, the subject matter treated within each set, internal cohesion, and topical references. When Mark Twain numbered his pages, his numbers have been printed. In addition, a number has been given to each manuscript leaf within a sequence.

No emendations have been made in Mark Twain’s holograph notes. His ampersands have been retained. Words with single underlinings are rendered in italics, those with double underlinings in small capital letters. Cancellations are included and marked by angle brackets: del: Hugo . Added words or phrases are preceded and followed by carets: add: butter—mouth . Additions in pencil or ink different from the original are rendered in boldface type: Tothill fields. Editorial explanations are in italics and enclosed in square brackets: kk0001 circled in pencil . Mark Twain’s alternative readings are separated by virgules: beguile/cheat.

The terms ink 1, ink 2, and ink 3 are used to designate Mark Twain’s writing materials. Ink 1 is the violet ink Mark Twain used for the earliest pages of his manuscript, written before the summer of 1877; ink 2 is the purple ink he used for the portions of the manuscript written between late 1877 and the spring of 1880; ink 3 is the blue ink he used for the final portion of his manuscript, written between the late spring of 1880 and 1 February 1881.

All the notes are in the Mark Twain Papers. See the introduction (pp. 19–25) for full information on the works cited below by short title. div:

Group A

These notes were written on a torn half—sheet of Crystal—Lake Mills stationery measuring 20.5 by 12.5 centimeters (8 1/16 by 4 15/16 inches), the paper used most often in the first sixteen chapters of the manuscript. The notes in A—1 were written in ink 1, whereas the notes in A—2 were written in pencil upside down on the verso of the sheet. The ink inscription is obviously a discarded page of the original Victorian manuscript featuring Jim Hubbard. The pencil notes, which refer to medieval arms, were clearly written after Mark Twain had decided to use an earlier historical setting. div:



that bowed down to the ground before the princes, made his heart ache with envy; so there was no more happiness for him. Jim’s father was a stevedore, or a coal—heaver, or something of that sort; a coarse, ignorant, passionate man, who often came home drunk, add: &  brought a bottle of gin with him; & presently, del: w  del: as soon as  add: when  his wife had caught up to his condition, the two would curse & fight. Jim & his brothers & sisters always came in for their share of cuffs & kicks, during the evening’s performances, & then were likely to be sent to bed without any supper. add: Jim being the eldest of the children, usually got a share of the kicks & cuffs based on the English law of primogeniture.  kk0002 added on the verso of the manuscript page

The family had but one </span>  div:


lg: l: Bombards & culverin’s  l: Hawberk & helmet  l: The King’s highness  l: Children had to have from 7 to 15, a bow & 2 arrows.     </span>  </span>  div:

Group B

Mark Twain wrote these pages of notes on Crystal—Lake Mills stationery in ink 2. On some of the pages, he later made additions in pencil; on B—8, in pencil and ink 3. Most of the references are to the third volume of Hume’s History of England. The content of these notes suggests Mark Twain had not yet begun his book and was engaged in establishing the basic historical background for it. div:



Son of Jane Seymour add: who died in ch—bed. 

Born Oct 12, ‘37. add: in child—bed. 

Succeeds Jan 28 ‘47.

add: assent to  Duke of Norfolk’s attaint given by royal com’n the night of 27hi: th  & del: 2 n of 28hi: th —king dies & he is del: (I believe)  saved del: .  add: , but lies in the Tower till accesshi: n  of Mary.  milestone:   Henry buried at Windsor Feb. 16—big funeral. milestone:   Anne Askew & 3 others burnt as Sacramentarians July 16, ‘46. milestone:   Edward (the real one) is crowned Feb. 20. milestone:   </span>  div:



His uncle del: the Lord High Admiral  add: Protector  Somerset was the real king at first—del: quite a warrior.  milestone:   Time, Jan. del: 20  28 to Feb. 20. milestone:   </span>  div:



add: Put this in. 

del: Cath. Parr (good sense & good talker) disputed with Henry, (she leaned to the religious reformers)del: , . Henry provoked because she disagreed. He complains to Gardiner (Arch” Cant?) who suggests her destruction. Chancellor (who?) seconds; Henry orders impeach articles; Wriothely draws them up—This paper Tom gets hold of & shows to the queen. See p. 303 Hume.  milestone:   Henry’s natural son, Duke of Richmond, married a daughter of Duke of Norfolk (p. 305. Norfolk’s son, the earl </span>  div:



add: Page 307 

of Surrey. Both towered at once—Surrey beheaded Jan. 19.—let that begin this tale.

del: H Surrey had refused to marry Hertford’s daughter. Henry believed he wanted to marry Mary. milestone:   Let Tom plead for Surrey. milestone:   Also for Norfolk. milestone:   Cranmer refused to help House of Lords & Commons destroy Norfolk. milestone:   Nobody with pluck enough to tell the terrible King he is going to die. Poor Tom does & gets a fine blowing up. “By the Splendor of God!” &c. </span>  div:



After Tom, Sir Anthony Denny does it, too. milestone:   He will know Lady Jane Grey, his cousin—very learned.—his own age. quote:
Also Mary, add: of Kath of Arragon.  born 1516.

Eliz, born 1533. of Anne Boleyn. </span>  M. P.’s had 4hi: s  a day, knights of shires, burgesses 2hi: s .

Katherine Howard lies in the Tower 3 mos & beheaded.

Kath Parr 4 yrs queen.

All monasteries dissolved & granted to Henry 1539. </span>  div:




65 corr:
kk0003 written perpendicularly above hi: “burnings” 

Religious burnings. milestone:   Shaxton, add: ex—  Bish of Salisbury, del: who preached  ex—Sacramentarian, reformed, & preached at Askew’s burning, begging her to del: re  conform. He was still alive in 1556. milestone:   Anabaptists burnt.

People burnt for denying the royal authority in religious matters. milestone:   Henry’s marriages, page 284 Annual. milestone:   No natural brothers or sisters surviving to Ed’s time. </span>  div:



add: P. 314 Hume 

Every man had to have a bow—but hand guns & X bows prohibited—no gatlings.

London could muster 15000 fighting men—that means a pophi: n  of 75,000. milestone:   Tom sees carrots, lettuce & turnips for the first time. milestone:   15000 foreign artificers in London. & 30,000 natives, (?)—that suggests a pop of del: 225 to 250,000.  say 200,000. milestone:   Plenty tramps. milestone:   60,000 in prison for debt & crime at one time.

72,000 executed in Henry’s reign, for theft & robbery. </span>  div:



add: P. 317 Hume .

Wages, prices of food, rent of farms. milestone:   4 graphicGroup:
Whipping, degradation & expulsion for pronouncing Greek in the Protestant fashion! hi: 319 
  milestone:   graphicGroup:
Tom’s great servants—320 H. Put these around him in the beginning.
  milestone:   Coronation 424 Froude, 1 v.

Tothill fields
</span>  div:


Mary comes like the rest to do add: him  homage as King.

del: Tom’s handwriting & his thoughtless signing of “Tom Canty” to a State document, betrays him  milestone:   No, he hurts his right hand & after always scrawls Edward Rex with his left. table: colgroup: col:   col:     tbody: tr: td: 58,000  td:     tr: td: 187,000  td:     tr: td: 40,000  td: 485,000    tr: td: hi: 200,000    td: hi: 50      tr: td: 485,000  td: 535,       

kk0005 on verso of hi: B—9 

table: colgroup: col:   col:   col:     tbody: tr: td: del: 1000    td:   td:     tr: td: 142,000  td:   td:     tr: td: hi: 90,000    td: 232  td:     tr: td: 232,000  td: 58  td:     tr: td: hi: 58    td: 40  td: 58000    tr: td: 174  td: hi: 33,333    td: hi: 33 ,del: 000 333    tr: td:   td: 363,333  td: 25 —        </span>  </span>  div:

Group C

These notes were written in pencil on a large sheet of lined tablet paper measuring 31.7 by 20.5 centimeters (12 7/16 by 8 1/16 inches), which has a three—part, red/blue/red, ledger—style rule 3.5 centimeters (1⅜ inches) from the left margin. The references are to Sir Walter Scott’s Fortunes of Nigel and the fifth volume of Froude’s History of England. In these notes Mark Twain’s “v” is a roman numeral, not an abbreviation for “volume.” div:


Alsatia (or Whitefriars) was legal refuge (See Nigel, introduction.

Hertford ambitious to be good to poor & have a reign of more liberty & without blood—this accounts for his allowing Tom to be kind—Froude v 17

Made in Council Feb. 16, Hertford Duke of Somerset, his brother Sir Thomas Seymour lord Seymour of Sudleye, Lord Parr Marquis of Northampton, del: Lisle &  add: Thos Lord  Wriothesley (del: Archhi: b  of Cant &  Lord Chancellor) & del: Lisle  Viscount Lisle Earls of Warwick & Southampton.

Jan. 31hi: st  Hertfrd made add: Lord  Protector

The Executors (Council) F v 18.

Young Kingsale

Cranmer Archhi: b  of Cant </span>  </span>  div:

Group D

Mark Twain wrote these language notes in pencil on eighteen sheets of Crystal—Lake Mills stationery and enclosed them in a folded sheet of Old Berkshire Mills stationery, which he labeled “Middle—Age phrases for a historical story.” D—3 bears the number “42” written and canceled in ink 2. The top third of D—5 has been torn off.

The notes in D—1 and D—2 are primarily drawn from the scenes involving Falstaff in Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1 (act 1, scene 2; act 2, scenes 1–4; act 3, scene 3; act 4, scene 2). The remainder of the notes in Group D are based on two Scott romances, Ivanhoe (D—3 and D—4 from chapters 1–9) and Kenilworth (D—5 through D—18 from chapters 1–4). Page references to Scott’s works correspond to the pagination of the “Abbotsford” edition (Edinburgh and London: Robert Cadell, 1844), a handsome illustrated twelve—volume set that Clemens acquired in Edinburgh in August 1873 (Clemens’ postscript on Olivia L. Clemens to Mrs. Jervis Langdon, 2–6 August 1873, Mark Twain Memorial, Hartford, Conn.). div:


lg: l: Your highness (to the King) Shak.  l: “Room for the King!” “place for the King!” (Shak.) Enter King, attended  l: by 2 dukes.  l: Please you, sir (to King.) Shak. Peace!  l: Old sack  l: Dials—  l: God save thy grace  l: Buff jerkin  l: it jumps with my humor  l: S’blood—hi: add: s’    death.  l: melancholy as a gib cat  l: ‘tis like, that they will know us.  l: Anon, anon (presently)  l: ‘Odsbody!  l: Nay, soft, I pray ye  l: Lend me thy lantern quoth ‘a  l: foot land—rakers (footpads)  l: thou purple—hued malt—worm!  l: You muddy knave  l: Peace, yet fat—kidneyed rascal  l: Happy man be his dole (lucky be he)    </span>  div:


lg: l: Dish of skimmed milk (spiritless fellow)  l: Goodman—goodwife  l: del: S  Then am I a shotten herring (rotten)  l: Seven, by these hilts, or I am a villain else.  l: 3 misbegotten knaves  l: thou clay—brained fool  l: thou slave! (Shak)  l: hearts of gold!  l: What manner of man, an it like yr majestydel: . ?  l: My noble lord (to King) Shak  l: Hide thee behind the arras.  l: He shall be answerable  l: Known as well as Pauls (K. Henry del: IV  add: 4  del: )   l: & now you pick a quarrel to beguile/cheat me of it  l: Come from eating draff & husks  l: I cry you mercy my good lord    </span>  div:


lg: l: del: 42     l: The curse of—  l: I am no true man  l: A murrain take thee  l: The curse of Cain upon thee  l: The father of mischief confound him  l: fain  l: touching these matters  l: son of Mahound! (Mahomet)  l: del: Hugo    l: What in the del: name of  witch’s name is add: thee matter   l: Haply it is so  l: Haste thee, knave! (servant)  l: Begone!  l: Churl  l: thou add: clown! thou  clod! thou del: basket  add: tub  of entrails  l: thou del: sh  whey—faced, lily—livered varlet!  l: —hath neither the fear of earth nor awe of heaven  l: mighty ale—a flagon—a cup—  l: broach the cask  l: dance a measure  l: del: Sh  Sirrah—villain  l: that were still somewhat on the bow—hand of fair justice    </span>  div:


lg: l: enow  l: Go to  l: Way for the King!  milestone:   l: Tilt—in Ivanhoe.  l: I crave pardon  l: drink wassail to the fair  l: That will I do, blithely  l: By the soul of my father  l: a bonny monk  l: gnaw the bowels of our nobles with usury.  l: I trow  l: Lord High Steward of England (obsolete?)  l: By the light of Heaven  l: Gramercy  l: in the fiend’s name  l: Gramercy for thy courtesy (derision)  l: Wot ye who he is?  l: By my faith  l: Good morrow & well met  l: As I belong to worship (am too respectable to venture to lie)  l: Misfortune speed him!    </span>  div:


lg: l: add: Marry come up—    l: Kingsale—Tush, man!  l: Pepys  l: Kenilworth  l: Giles  l: Tabard Inn in Southwark  l: Harry, Hal  l: Bear & Rugged Staff  l: Will  l: Loose jacket, linen breeches, add: linen cap for cook  add: landlord  green apron add: napkin over arm, velvet cap   l: Beshrew my heart else  l: pewter flagon of Rhenish  l: best canaries—& add: mulled  sack  l: jerkin & cloak  l: pike & caliver add: Gramercy     </span>  div:


lg: l: blithest news—add: how  durst thou  l: think so basely  l: gallants  l: Robin  l: the caliver that fired the ball  l: cannon  l: that I would give a peeled codling for  l: By the mass  l: kinsman  l: Michael—Mike  l: cavalier  l: warehouse—shop  l: Put in a printer  l: tapster’s boy  l: gallows branded on left shoulder for stealing a caudle—cup  l: Slipping aside his ruff & del: turning  add: pushing  down the sleeve of his doublet from his add: neck &  shoulder    </span>  div:


lg: l: Goodman—  l: dame  l: goodwife  l: swine  l: wend  l: indifferently  l: thriftless—  l: godless  l: infidel  l: wench  l: Laurence  l: mercer  l: haberdasher  l: lawns, cypresses & ribands  l: Spital  l: a cup of clary  l: Benedict  l: clerk of the parish  l: the hangman—brands people.  l: broad slouched hat & plume  l: laced wristbands  l: nonage  l: broils    </span>  div:


lg: l: prince royal—the heir  l: hang—dog that I am  l: I have suffered him to sit  l: guerdon  l: largesse! largesse!  l: bonny  l: spitchcock’d eels  l: I pray you of your courtesy  l: tankard  l: beaker  l: treason—everything is  l: legs swathed with a hay—wisp, a del: thatched  add: felt  bonnet.  l: their jerkin as thin as a cobweb  l: a pouch without ever a cross to keep the fiend from dancing it.  l: jovial  l: mar—feast  l: stand & deliver  l: crowns s. & d.  l: del: guineas!  add: nobles —del: he lo he talks in like a very lord!    </span>  div:


lg: l: wears his cloak o’ one side & affects a ruffianly vaporing humor—  l: his hat awry  l: Hounslow heath  l: ruffler  l: you wot not  l: ‘twas gospel  l: pluck his plumes del: for from him  l: worshipful  l: trowl the cup right merrily  l: jolly good ale & olde.  l: this savors of  l: swashing Will of Wallingford  l: swashbuckler  l: pursuivant’s warrant  l: crossbow shaft  l: clothyard” Dick  l: Tony Foster  l: roasted heretic for breakfast  l: Reeve to the abbot  l: purse of nobles & angels  l: quotha!    </span>  div:


lg: l: Anthony  l: poor wight  l: belted knight  l: rest her soul!  l: men keep such a coil about  l: the postern door was upon the latch  l: peach—colored doublet pinked out with cloth of gold  l: a silken jerkin & hose  l: what—d’ye—lack sort o’ countenance  l: velvet bonnet, ostrich or Turkey feather—  l: gold brooch  l: shew  l: come, gentles,  l: Marry confound thine impudence  l: pudding face  l: sarsenet add: butter—mouth   l: hearken to him add: slate—face    l: maugre all the gibes & quips of add: his   l: peradventure  l: ambling palfrey  l: lattice    </span>  div:


lg: l: gentlewoman  l: lady’s dress—20, Kenilworth  l: lily—livered slave  l: quartern of sack  l: this bout  l: a piece of Hollands  l: lay you up in lavender (jail  l: the town—stocks—put him in (the wooden pinfold)  l: value no more’n shelled peascod  l: By St George  l: valor  l: Nay if it pleasure you  l: Nay  l: emprise  l: Wilt thou chop logic with me?  l: galloon lace  l: doughty  l: By St Julian  l: swilled  l: swill  l: smut  l: blasphemy    </span>  div:


lg: l: publican  l: salver  l: Three Cranes in the Vintry, the most topping tavern in London.  l: The Mitre in Fleet?  l: Fleet Prison & marriages.  l: bide his wager  l: purlieu  l: new—laid eggs & muscadine del: for  breakfast  l: del: L Giles  l: paid scot & lot  l: swasher  l: six—hooped pot  l: a carder, a dicer  l: mine host  l: Troth I know/wot not  l: bedizened  l: sold himself to the devil  l: Manor—house—  l: another clay than we are  l: Cicely    </span>  div:


lg: l: a wet night—drinking a cup of del: fr  bastard  l: clary  l: canaries  l: sack  l: e’en let her go her way o’ God’s name  l: how brave thou be’st, lad (dress  l: sad—colored suit  l: country—breeding  l: carves to me last  l: Coming, friend (makes prince mad  l: When the stake is made the game must be played  l: gamester  l: sack—butt  l: do me the grace  l: forfeit  l: Harry—nobles—gold  l: cold steel  l: wooded park  l: linsey—wodel: o lsey fellow  l: White—friars    </span>  div:


lg: l: such an unthrift  l: no saint & no saver  l: toper  l: his humor jumps with mine  l: La you there now!  l: swallow chaff for grain  l: a scant—of—grace  l: forsooth!  l: groat  l: a wealthy chuff  l: rose—nobles  l: make the best on’t  l: A building—28 Ken  l: doublet of russet leather girt with buff belt— add: (dudgeon dagger)  long knife  l: & cutlass  l: ingle—side  l: capon  l: friend, gossip & playfellow  l: gallows—bird  l: jail—rat    </span>  div:


lg: l: split thy wizen—weazand  l: as low as to thy midriff  l: caitiff  l: churl  l: clown  l: Tyburn tippet—so they did the hanging there?  l: Uds daggers!  l: fald—stool  l: puritanical  l: Prince dress—p. 31 Ken  l: books with great clasps & heavy bindings—Caxton & Wynkdel: y in  l: Yeoman’s service  l: Pshaw  l: Popish  l: papist  l: kennel  l: Gad—a—mercy    </span>  div:


lg: l: gall of bitterness & bond of iniquity (before conversion)  l: prithee peace  l: peace, dog!  l: mire  l: slop—pouch  l: thou canst not dance in a net & not be seen  l: Look you  l: lyme—hound to track wounded buck  l: gaze—hound to kill him at view  l: a currish proposal  l: ill—nurtured whelp  l: Milan visor—armor  l: Dress Tom in armor   l: debauch  l: your falling band—linen falling down in front?  l: trunk—hose   l: carnal weapon—sword    </span>  div:


lg: l: gentleman—usher  l: puritan  l: priest with book at girdle  l: poniard  l: squire a dame  l: squire  l: esquire  l: hawk & hound  l: flat—cap’d thread—maker  l: mercer  l: give the wall to her  l: swaggerer —ing word  l: putting a jape upon you (deceit  l: thou sodden—brained gull  l: filthy horn of stable lantern  l: By the holy cross of Abingdon  l: by the rood  l: sweet friend  l: masquer  l: mask  l: who shall gainsay me?  l: maiden    </span>  div:


lg: l: add: van  kk0007 written off the page above hi: “Harbottle”    l: Sir Harbottle Grimstone   l: thy base unmannered tongue  l: Uds precious!  l: Knave add: Varlet   l: add: Parliament bill brought to Tom in French couldn’t read it.    l: costard—breast?  l: add: away,  base groom!  l: Avaunt  l: tarry not  l: by blood & nails  l: meddling coxcomb  l: withal  l: slouched hat & drooping feather  l: What make you here?  l: carrion—crow—batten  l: kite—maw   l: Draw & defend  l: rapier (Elizabeth shortened them—let her say she will   l: put up yr fox (sword)    </span>  </span>  div:

Group E

Mark Twain wrote these notes in pencil on torn half—sheets of unlined wove paper measuring 17.8 by 11.5 centimeters (7 by 4½; inches), the same paper he used exclusively for the second half of the book beginning with chapter 17. Nearly all the phrases were drawn from chapters 2 through 8 of Quentin Durward. div:


lg: l: fine young springald  l: prithee, gossip, come  l: By St Anne but he is a del: pe proper youth  l: By my halidome  l: fair son,  l: my gossip (my comrade)  l: he hath little in his head but honesty & the fear of God  l: bill of charges  l: Rest you merry, fair master  l: a cup of burnt sack  l: hawking  l: paladin  l: pulled his bonnet over his eye  l: Hold, hold, most doughty man  l: Hark ye  l: mockery  l: ducat (not used)  l: Nay    </span>  div:


lg: l: Now by my father’s hand (beard)  l: By Heaven  l: a flight—shot (arrow—shot) distant  l: hostelry  l: bestow  l: baldric  l: wine—pot  l: the brethren of the joyous science (war  l: the festival of St Jude last by—past.  l: I bethink me (I remember)  l: I doubt not your warranty  l: grand feudatories  l: He will give me good advice for my governance.  l: in guerdon of his service  l: gird at him  l: soothsayers & magicians, jugglers  l: a button of his jerkin  l: (Dress of arms about p. 54 Q. Durward)  l: You shall abye it (answer for it)    </span>  div:


lg: l: fair sir  l: with my humble duty  l: cavalier of honor  l: del: c soldier of fortune  l: damsel  l: del: s damosel  l: keep their state  l: shew  l: comfits—comfiture  l: bid yonder lady  l: bring hither  l: hark  l: hark in your ear  l: look you  l: the foul fiend  l: add: makes both serve him, for as  del: for as  great princes as they be  l: good master  l: sirrah  l: old cozening quean     </span>  div:


lg: l: squalid—squalor  l: halberd  milestone:   l: Have a council concerning matters relating to foreign countries.  milestone:   l: have a rouse (spree), carouse.  l: By my hilts!  l: thou shalt be dearly welcome  l: ay—aye  l: the weal or woe  l: fair cousin—said to a prince  l: By St Hubert  l: St Dunstan  l: del: “ Willibald    l: “ Swithin  l: Body o’ me.  l: this brawling ruffler of the camps  l: his retinue of pursuivants & trumpets  l: coxcomb  l: I will nail my gauntlet to these gates  l: masterful  l: Marry & amen!  l: malapert ambassador  l: kindled with shame—kindling eye    </span>  div:


kk0008 on verso of hi: E—4 

lg: l: Description of Tom in a fresh suit of armor sent to him—88 Q. Durward.  l: inflamed  l: Tom is to the King’s Ward in Xhi: s  Hospital  l: He & Hendon are to live out the century & he longer.  l: A stately proclamation to Tom—90 Ib.    </span>  </span>  div:

Group F

Mark Twain wrote most of these notes in ink 2 on the versos of sheets from the printed playscript of Ah Sin, making some additions in pencil and ink 3. He made the notes early in the composition of The Prince and the Pauper; their content suggests that they were set down before he had completed chapter 7 of the manuscript. div:


Tom begins by abolishing all sorts of harsh laws by his simple command. Herdel: bert tfd & council object by T is firm—Am I not King? Hertford persuades him to withhold execution a month hoping he forget. kk0009 sidelined in ink hi: 3 

Meantime, Prince is suffering these punishments & resolving to abolish them.

Sees a woman burned—going to stop that, too. Siezes axe, “I am King!” & rushes to cut her loose. milestone:   Tom & Mary talk—she urges for Pope & papacy & wants burnings. kk0010 sidelined in ink hi: 3 

milestone:   Tom says “No! let me but hear of a burning, & I— kk0011 sidelined in ink hi: 3 

</span>  div:


Speech—dog. milestone:   Visit queen Parr milestone:   Insert inquiry about Seal. add: The K says, I told you do so & so with it.  milestone:   Lords intriguing over will between 1 & daylight. milestone:   Ordering Norfolk’s death by Commission. milestone:   140 servants for Tom. milestone:   Canty kills somebody & all fly. milestone:   Reflections of the 2 boys when they wake. Sir Whi: m . Herbert sleeps in room or closet with Tom—other servants & guards in ante—r. Tom asks, “Did I so & so yesterday, or dream it?” milestone:   Crowds of people in ante rooms—the K! the K! </span>  div:


add: Champion rides in.  milestone:   True prince appears in rags from concealment in del: Ed  Ed Confesrs tomb—hidden there & watched by his rough friend. milestone:   He offers plenty proofs—languages, &c—courtiers afraid to speak—Hertford alone says he is willing to risk his head by del: calling him  fully believing in him if he can correctly answer one? Where is the great Seal? In right hand steel & gold gauntlet, del: present  in cabinet. Describe this through Tom’s eyes. Tom used it (to crack nuts with?) milestone:   Messenger inquires about the Cantys. </span>  div:


del: 2 

add: Messire  kk0012 written in pencil above hi: “St John” 

Seems to me St John ought to manoever about the prince, too, but desire to keep him out, since he can the better manage a mild del: mad  & ignorant mad man.

He is the reason why the prince is never discovered, though always on the point of being. His spy hunts in couples with Hertford’s & so is always on hand to prevent, by doing prince pretended favors & warnings & getting him away. milestone:   Tom’s friend suspects, & gets him away to Abbey privately, in time for cor. milestone:   Hertford says, No human creature would deny being </span>  div:


the prince, but would gladly lie the reverse, with so fine an opportunity—of course the boy is mad! milestone:   del: At that first luncheon the prince, out of his princely good breeding, sends servants away lest their presence embarrass Tom.  kk0013 written in pencil and canceled in ink 2

milestone:   del: May I pick my teeth myself  milestone:   Wants to discharge his servants. milestone:   George add: (collar)  & garter where he dines in public kk0014 circled in ink 3

milestone:   Mary Queen of Scots del: 5  add: 4  yrs add: & 1 month  old in ‘47 kk0015 sidelined in ink 3

milestone:   lg: l: P Hertford, Mary & Bishops pester the soul of Tom with intrigues &  l: 17 pleadings for this thing & that, kk0016 sidelined in ink 3   l: 57   l: 6     </span>  div:


The ball & mask after banquet—see Hunt for costumes. milestone:   Tom’s first ceremonial dinner, with cup—bearers, & napkin—holders, & lightsnuffers—not allowed to do anything for himself. Eats with his fingers—is surprised at the vegetables—asks their names.

H.—“Tis the prince’s humor of his madness—humor it in all ways. Privately instructs Tom how to eat & put out his hand to be kissed.” </span>  div:


Kings death announced in midst of Mask—confusion & hurry & excitement—mask breaks up—obsequious homage to Tom—“Live the King!” Barge it home in solemn state & slow oars, with the tide—deep tolling bells. milestone:   Purple for Mourning. milestone:   Court goes into mourning, del: & pulls sad faces  milestone:   Henry’s funeral—perpetual masses. milestone:   Passages between Guilford Dudley & lady Jane. milestone:   Tom—“He is King, & I am not”—(at Coronation.) </span>  </span>  div:

Group G

These notes were written in pencil on the front of a folded sheet of Crystal—Lake Mills stationery. The page citations refer to Lucy Aikin’s Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, which was first published in 1818 and several times reissued. Mark Twain apparently had originally planned to develop the role of the young Elizabeth more fully. div:


Elizabeth dressed with exceeding simplicity in Edward’s time—60 Court of Q E. milestone:   Letter from Elizabeth to Tom about his health—62 & about H’s place. milestone:   Let Tom’s judgments & dining in public be put off a week. add: but meet Council first day, as now.  milestone:   Strike out his talk with del: Hum.  Eliz & Lady Jane till after his talk with Humphrey. milestone:   Put off the talk with Humphrey several days. add: if pos—  milestone:   The letter accommodates matters, so Eliz returns from Hatfield— —62. milestone:   Tom teaches Eliz & Lady Jane to make mud pies. </span>  </span>  div:

Group H

These notes were written in pencil on the outer pages of a folded sheet of lined laid paper measuring 20.2 by 12.4 centimeters (7 15/16 by 4⅞ inches), embossed with a female head in profile. The page references are to Trumbull’s True—Blue Laws. Mark Twain evidently made the notes before writing chapter 15, where the poisoner condemned to be boiled to death appears, as well as the woman and child accused of having “raised a storm by pulling off their stockings.” div:



Crimes & Penalties. milestone:   Introduction to Blue Laws. milestone:   Petitioning the King against a judge for injustice, ears cut off &c.—11.

Man who wrote imprudent tract against maypoles, festivals, &c, del: fined £5000, ears cut —he is proceeding to have the remains of his ears cut off—12

Pressing to death—12

Women’s punishments for counterfeiting, irreligion &c, to be burnt alive —12

(At Tyburn Prince may be, & see these.

Poisoners boiled to death—a law add: of H. VIII  repealed by Edward VI. 13 2hi: d  larceny of 13 pence, death—13

The prince, in the kindness of </span>  div:



his heart, finding a crippled falcon, takes it up & succors it—it is found on him—he is accused by the real thief of stealing it, & is thrown into prison to await trial—penalty is death without benefit of clergy—13.

del: The prince is badly treated by gypsies 

The prince sees 2 Dutch Baptists burnt—16

To speak in derogation of Book of Common Prayer, 100 marks; 17

Baptists could not make wills or receive legacies 17

He sees a witch add: & daughter 9 yrs  burnt & approves. They had sold their souls to the devil—so enemies said—& raised a storm by pulling off their stockings—if Nan or Bet & Mother, they hadn’t any. </span>  </span>  div:

Group I

Mark Twain wrote these notes in pencil on torn half—sheets of Crystal—Lake Mills stationery, making additions in ink 3 in I—6. div:



Edw. mourns for his father (weeps).

Tom dines in greater state, as King (see Lee Hunt).

del: Touches  add: Tom  touches (his mother or sisters or father) & others for King’s evil.

A bear—leader captures Ed. & makes him del: put  pass the hat for pennies—This bearleader is del: Canty.  of a gang of tramps who rove like gypsies (evicted to make sheep farms) In the tramp camp find Canty. Describe orgies. Miracle—playing troup for kitchens. Short card & dicing sharps (a man del: pl  may play with his own servant)—see Blue Laws.

Let them talk familiarly of this one & that one hanged, branded, burned for a witch &c, to Ed’s horror. He finally blazes </span>  div:



out in his royal character about what he will do, &c, to the immense amusement of the guffawing gang, who crown him, sceptre him & do him mock homage as Foo—foo the First King of the del: Shadows  Mooncalves. With this gang he in time sees all the punishments inflicted. Sometimes he exercises the pardoning power & is laughed at. Gets cuffs.

He has furnished add: a  letterdel: s  in Greek, del: &  Latin & French to Hendon who is to send them to Court in evidence that he is prince. Hendon values them not, but carries them about him & forgets them. Being in a close place, later, after Ed is stolen he exhibits them as says they are certificate that he has been flogged. Canty, covetous of this free pass, steals it from Hendon. Only a fragment is left, which reads: “That I am the rightful King of England I can prove; likewise that del: Mar  the lady Mary & the lady E are my sisters. And I do hereby warn all, </span>  div:



on pain of death . . . . .”

Gets to hand of officer who can read it—asks Canty if he claims all therein stated—he does—thrown in prison for high treason. Ed as King, sends pardon, but too late.

The tramps have taken away Hendon’s clothes & reclothed him & sent him to beg. del: —they admire him for getting —finds favor with the gang because he has been flogged & is an old tramp & no gentleman—watches every opportunity to steal Ed away, but is watched too closely. milestone:   Night before Coronation—both boys striking for liberty, with deep—laid plans & bribed help—Tomadd: ‘s  del: comes  conscience will not let him be crowned. He comes within a hair of escaping—just the act of a mad King. milestone:   </span>  div:



Show how Tom, finding discovery is not likely, loses his fears; then begins to take an interest in seeing how well he can play King; consequently soon begins to enjoy his pomps—requires 50 more Gents at Arms—but from that moment the struggle begins between his conscience & his del: new  enjoyment of his pomps—a struggle in which conscience will finally win, & at last his only desire will be to get rid of the poisoned sceptre—he will be melancholy, hours together, & the ingenuity of the court will be taxed to amuse him.

Part of this is remorse for having touched his mother for King’s evil & refused to receive her embrace or acknowledge her. add: though he slips a handful of gold to her.  From that moment his pleasure is gone & he sets spies abroad to find her & the King.

His first joy is born of that state dinner. </span>  div:



One of his fears, when he is to drive in state to the city is that he may meet some member of his family & be betrayed. It is on this trip that he touches for the evil in (St Paul’s?)

The progress to Paul’s is for thanksgiving for his entire restoration to health & occurs between the funeral (16hi: th ) & the coronation (20hi: th ).

He ratifies del: He  Somerset’s dukedom Jan. 31, & Somcorr: erset  then becomes Protector.

Not wholly happy at the state dinner, but the dawn of happiness glimmers then. milestone:   Miss Martineau describes a coronation. See “Little Duke.” milestone:   If necessary have a tournament on the Bridge, from Scott. milestone:   Shall Edward see funeral at Windsor? </span>  div:



Edward must show grief for his father’s death—Tom none. milestone:   Proposition of marriage with little Mary Queen of Scots, 4 yrs old.—no, 5. milestone:   King out in a bitter snow storm. kk0017 written diagonally below other entries

</span>  </span>  div:

Group J

Mark Twain wrote these notes in pencil on the outer pages of two folded sheets of the same paper he used for Group H. div:


Tom (as King) gives Father Andrew a large pension—Edward afterward confirms it. kk0018 sidelined in ink 3

Tom had near del: 2 400 servants (page 119 MS).

Hendon shall vagabondize on a bought certificate that he has been whipped & imprisoned for begging </span>  div:


The prince hears of the death of the King that night & proclamation of Tom.

Prince is called Lambert Simnel & Perkin Warbeck. </span>  </span>  div:

Group K

This note was written in pencil on a torn half—sheet of lined laid paper, measuring 20.2 by 12.5 centimeters (7 15/16 by 4 15/16 inches), embossed with an ornate crest picturing a half moon and star. Although the reference to Timbs and Hunt, authors cited in The Prince and the Pauper, suggests that this note dates from the summer of 1879, it is possible that Clemens wrote it on one of his three earlier trips to London between 1872 and 1874. Stow’s Survey of London was first published in 1598; “Walks” may refer to any of several pedestrian guides to London. div:


Page 1.

Nobody in town.—Bought Timbs—Walks—Stowdel: e —Leigh Hunt, & a lot of other authorities & read about a thing, then went leisurely to see it. milestone:   </span>  </span>  div:

Group L

Mark Twain wrote these notes in pencil on three sheets of the same paper he used for the note in K—1. The work from which the references to the Tower of London and Sir Walter Raleigh were culled has not been identified. The connection between these notes and the plot of the Prince and the Pauper is tenuous at best. Like K—1, these notes may date from an earlier visit to London and perhaps reflect Mark Twain’s early interest in writing a travel book about England. div:



Drunken habits of James I & his court—Hunt—413 milestone:   “The Tower”

add: The fascination of spots which have seen history—grass grows not where Boleyn was beheaded—nor elsewhere.  kk0019 added on the verso of the manuscript page

milestone:   graphicGroup:
Crown del: je —second—  Romantic . . . . . . . . . . . 26lb:  del: Give Wren a blast  . . . . . . . 27lb:  Bully graveyard—a second Westminster—30}lb:  See & print Blood’s attempt on the jewels. Old Talbotlb:  Edward’s tablet— 31
  milestone:   Londoner’s don’t visit Tower. milestone:   del: It is ancient slaughter house of del: nobles  Kings—  milestone:   del: Kne Killing of Jack Straw—34 </span>  div:


2 table: colgroup: col:   col:     tbody: tr: td: Exiled to Isle of Wight!  td: 36    tr: td: Richhi: d  IIhi: s  death  td: 36    tr: td: Orleans’s imprisonment  td: 40    tr: td: Quote Shaks & Froissart.   td:     tr: td: Argument as to Perkin Warbeck  td: 40    tr: td: See “Cameos.”   td:     tr: td: Burial of the Princes, & hanging of the murderers  td: 47    tr: td: Wanted to burn Archbishop  td: 49    tr: td: About Anne Boleyn  td: 56    tr: td: The Killing  td: 57    tr: td: Murder of Overbury  td: 154    tr: td: Dress to hang in  td: 155    tr: td: Saved his soul  td: 156    tr: td: Used to gouge prisoners  td: ”    tr: td: Singular kindness of servant  td: 157    tr: td: Fate of the principals  td: 158    tr: td: Farewell letter of Raleigh  td: 162        </span>  div:



Raleigh’s company in Tower while writing his history—among them his wife—had a son born there Discourses & talks on chemistry—real comfortable times—best circumstances possible in which to write. 165

Been there 8 yrs then.

Imprisoned on a trivial trumped up charge. James robbed the son of his estate because he “maun have it for Carr.”—a creature.

R. couldn’t even “walk up the hill within the Tower.” Afterwards allowed. table: colgroup: col:   col:     tbody: tr: td: Guiana expedition  td: 169.    tr: td: Imprisoned again  td: 171    tr: td: (under old sentence)  td: 172    tr: td: His speech for few days repite  td: 172    tr: td: Remark about axe  td: 174    tr: td: Execution  td: 175        Wife kept head till death, 30 yrs—like daughter of More—was it a custom? —must have been a collection of heads in most noble houses. </span>  </span>  div:

Group M

This note was written in ink 2 on the torn upper half of a folded sheet of lined wove paper. div:


Inscribe to J.

Make portraits from the same photograph, & let artist dress one in rags, ‘tother en prince—Call one Tom, aged 6 & tother The Prince of Wales, aged 6. </span>  </span> 

APPENDIX B: A Boy’s Adventure